ProductsFEA Software for Electromechanical DesignJMAG-Designer [Material Database / Material Modeling]

Material Database

There are 745 types of characteristics data for magnetic steel sheet, powder compacting materials, and permanent magnets from 21 companies built-in. Precise material designs are completed by just selecting the material name. Of course, users can set their own unique characteristics.

Material Database
An extensive material database

Magnetization Updated

JMAG can perform a magnetization analysis that reproduces magnetization distribution in a more realistic manner, allowing you to analyze the magnetization process in greater detail. Magnetic properties that define the magnetization distribution for the parts to be magnetized can be created as a material, referred to in JMAG as a "magnetization material."
Furthermore, the material model calculated by the magnetization analysis can be added to the material database as a "User Magnetization" material.

Creating a Magnetization Material

Add properties of a magnetized material required for a magnetization analysis to the material database, and then use them. Define [Initial Magnetization Curve] which is the magnetic properties when applied an external magnetic field, [Magnetization Ratio] which defines the behavior of incomplete magnetization, and [Demagnetization Curve], and then perform modeling.

Importing the User's Magnetization Material

After a magnetization analysis, the magnetization material that has been created is automatically added in the name of the study to the [User Magnetization] folder under [Permanent Magnet] in the material list. There is another method of doing this, however: A user magnetization material can also be added manually. Right-click [User Magnetization] and select the [Create New User Magnetized Material] to specify the calculated JCF file.
The calculated JCF file is then exported with the name "[input JCF file name] + _magnetized.jcf" to the folder where the magnetization analysis was run. If the magnetization analysis was run from JMAG-Designer, the [input JCF file name] is "Designer.jcf", so the calculated JCF file name is "Designer_magnetized.jcf". This JCF file is useful because it allows the same user magnetization material to be recreated in any computer.

JMAG Function Videos


Magnet Settings using
the Magnetization Analysis

Temperature dependent material in thermal properties

In thermal analysis, material properties need to be specified are only three items, specific heat [J/kg/deg C], thermal conductivity [W/m/deg C], and density [Kg/m^3]. Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity is set in the Thermal Properties tab of the Material Editor dialog box, and Density is set in the Mechanical Properties tab. All these material properties can be defined as the table value for Temperature Dependent and nonlinear properties can be taken into account. Temperature Dependency under Density is set to express a phase transformation such as density variations from metal's crystal structure changes in high temperature.
In a coupled analysis between thermal and magnetic field, a model used in a magnetic field analysis is often used also in a thermal analysis as it is. Magnetic field analysis models, however, includes parts such as air regions that are not necessary in a heat conduction analysis, so they must be deleted. In such cases, just clearing the [Include This Material to Analysis] checkbox in the Material properties dialog box of the part makes it possible to delete the part. The part seems to be still exits in the model, but it is exempt from calculation, leading to the shorter calculation time.

Thermal Properties tab of the Material Editor dialog box Mechanical Properties tab of the Material Editor dialog box
Thermal Properties tab
of the Material Editor dialog box
Mechanical Properties tab
of the Material Editor dialog box
Temperature dependency table of thermal conductivity.  Material properties screen
Temperature dependency table
of thermal conductivity.
Material properties screen

JMAG Function Videos


Temperature Dependent Heat /
Mechanical Properties

Electromagnetic steel sheet

  • 80 products available. The magnetization and loss properties are available for most of the materials.
  • Lamination factor.
  • Iron loss calculation
  • Both oriented and non-oriented steel sheet.
  • Stress dependence supported

Electromagnetic steel sheet
Eddy current distribution at the edge of the motor,
taking into account the laminated structure.

JMAG Function Videos


Electromagnetic
Steel Sheet Material

Soft Ferrite, Soft Magnetic Composite

Major products of core materials such as ferrite materials and powder compacting materials, etc. are stored in the database.

Ferrite and soft magnetic composite are available in the material database.
Ferrite and soft magnetic composite are available in the material database

Magnet

It is possible to define demagnetization properties with the material database or property parameters. Settings for the typical magnetization patterns are completed by selecting it from the panels because such patterns are stored in JMAG. Skews and step skews used in motors are also supported.
Temperature dependency can also be accounted for.
Magnetization analysis for seeing the effects of incomplete magnetization and magnetization process and demagnetization analysis with thermal demagnetization and reverse magnetic field demagnetization can also be done.

Skewed magnetization Permanent Magnet
Magnetization direction r component contour plot display Comparison of cogging torque with and without skew

JMAG Function Videos


Permanent Magnet Material

Accounting for the Temperature Dependency of B-H Curves

Temperature dependent magnetic materials have to be used to improve the accuracy when running coupled thermal and magnetic field analyses that have large temperature variations. The temperature dependent magnetic materials that have been supported by user subroutines have been standardized.
These properties allow phenomena, especially in the magnetic saturation region, to be simulated more accurately than models using the conventional temperature dependent permeability. The accuracy has been vastly enhanced for analyses that have temperature variations over a wide-range caused by large currents, such as high-frequency induction heating.
However, the user needs to define these properties because the temperature dependent material properties are not part of the material database.

Temperature distributions after  the quenching
Temperature distributions after the quenching

JMAG Function Videos


Temperature Dependent
B-H Characteristics

Interpolation of the B-H Properties

Extrapolation of the B-H Properties

  • Purpose
    • Improved convergence by performing smoothing processing on input BH curves
  • Features
    • Extrapolation function processing introduced for BH tables
    • 2nd-order or exponential functions can be used as extrapolation functions

Extrapolation by quadratic function Extrapolation by quadratic function

Extrapolation by quadratic function

Extrapolation of the B-H Properties

Magnetic flux density distribution
(above: μ0 extrapolation;
below: quadratic function extrapolation)

Extrapolation of the B-H Properties

Effects on torque

JMAG Function Videos


Extrapolation of B-H Characteristics

Check function of BH curves

  • Improved convergence can be achieved by performing smoothing processing on input BH curves
    • Smooth the input data with rapid changes in value or data with few reference points using spline approximation
Example of BH curve smoothing
Example of BH curve smoothing

Use of Magnetization Distributions Taken from Demagnetization Analyses

  • Use magnet status taken from reverse magnetic field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization analyses in other analyses!
    • Evaluate increases in power loss and torque variations due to demagnetized magnets
    • Confirm effects on control using JMAG-RT models that account for demagnetization

140℃時の減磁率分布
Demagnetization distribution at 140 deg C
Analysis1
Cogging torque at initial state(60 deg C)
Cogging torque at initial state
(60 deg C)
Analysis2
Torque under load(140 deg C)
Torque under load
(140 deg C)
Analysis3
Cogging torque after demagnetization(60 deg C)
Cogging torque
after demagnetization
(60 deg C)

JMAG Function Videos


Reusing Demagnetized Magnets

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation

  • Purpose
    • Detailed iron loss calculation considering degradation due to punching
  • Features
    • BH characteristics can be modified by defining a "flux density - correction coefficient" table
    • Affected ranges can be specified by selecting edges and faces

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation

Image of degraded region

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation

Specifying the degraded region (distorted region)

  • Effects on torque output values, and increased loss from iron loss, etc., can be evaluated

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation

Iron loss density distribution
(left: without degradation; right: with degradation)

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation

Torque comparison
with and without production degradation

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation

Iron loss comparison
with and without production degradation

Detailed Iron Loss Calculation for Degradation
Table settings screen for "Magnetic Flux Density vs Correction Coefficient"

JMAG Function Videos


Accounting for Production
Degradation

Modelling Accounting For Stress

The effects that stress from shrink fitting and press fitting have on machine performance can be accounted for.

  • The magnetic properties and iron loss properties of electromagnetic steel sheets with stress dependencies can be used.
Magnetic properties
Magnetic properties
Iron loss properties
Iron loss properties
Stress dependent material properties (35A360)

Detailed evaluations accounting for magnetic flux density and stress direction can be evaluated in an iron loss analysis.

  • Both compressive stress and tensile stress are supported.
  • Magnetic flux density is divided into each direction component for stress, and then stress for each direction component is accounted for.
Principle stress Magnetic flux density
Losses by the tensor method: 3.3(W)
Losses by the tensor method: 3.3(W)

JMAG Function Videos


Consideration of Stress

Importing Material Data

  • Directly imports material data from PowerCore® Explorer

Material data from PowerCore® Explorer, a material data management tool provided by ThyssenKrupp Corp. can be imported in custom materials. BH curves containing multiple frequencies are imported by each separate frequency.
It can be imported if it is in the same text file format as the material data written by PowerCore® Explorer.
BH properties and iron loss properties can be imported.

Importing data of Power Core® Explorer JMAG database
Example of importing iron loss properties
Importing data of PowerCore® Explorer (left) in the JMAG database(right)

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